Company Commercial

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Urgent call to action - Abolition of Bearer Shares in the UK

From 26 May 2015, companies incorporated in the UK have not been permitted to issue bearer shares. This is the first step in the complete abolition of bearer shares for UK companies. The law sets out a strict timetable relating to existing bearer shares and unless the right steps are taken now, the holder of any bearer shares will lose their capital in the relevant company.

All current holders of bearer shares may apply to the company for the conversion of their bearer shares into ordinary shares.  If this has not been done before 26 December 2015, all rights attaching to any remaining bearer shares will be suspended, including the right to vote or to receive dividends.

After 26 February 2016, steps will be taken to cancel all remaining bearer shares (without exchanging them for any other capital in the company). The company will be required to pay into court a sum equal to the nominal value of the bearer shares and any premium and accrued dividends on them. The bearer shareholder will then have a limited period in which to claim the sums paid into court, but will only be permitted to recover the money in exceptional circumstances. The bearer shareholder will not be given any alternative interest in the company. If the bearer shareholder is unsuccessful in his claim then the money will be forfeit.

Companies with bearer shares are required to give certain notices to bearer shareholders regarding their rights. A failure to do so constitutes an offence by all the directors.

Product Safety - Key regulations to be aware of

The sale, manufacture, labelling and distribution of many products are governed by wide-reaching regulations intended mainly to protect consumers against unsafe products.  The principle regulatory framework in force in the UK is set out in The General Product Safety Regulations 2005, which implement into UK law the EU General Product Safety Directive 1995.

Who is affected by the Regulations?

The regulatory framework applies to all “producers” of products. The rules require that there must always be someone within the EU who can be identified as the producer. A producer includes the manufacturer, if within the EU, but also any person representing himself as the manufacturer (for example, by putting his name or trademark onto the product). If the manufacturer is situated outside the EU, then the manufacturer’s representative in the EU, such as a distributor or agent, will be the producer or, in the absence of a representative, the importer.

Other parties in the supply chain will also be producers, if their activities may affect the safety properties of a product (for example, by repackaging it).

Continue reading Product Safety - Key regulations to be aware of



The below are suggested stages to keep abreast of your credit control – and hence cash flow – crucial to any business.  The suggested stages are drafted with a ‘provision of services’ business in mind but could easily be adapted to cover provision of goods.   The principles are much the same

1.   Issue terms and conditions to new clients/customers right from the start setting out the terms, for example:-

  • the various personnel who will be undertaking the work,
  • the rates charged, indicating, if appropriate that invoices may be raised on an interim monthly basis,
  • that invoices are due for payment within [XX] days, and
  • that interest at [X]% will be charged on late payment.  (Perhaps also consider including a request for a payment on account in certain circumstances).

2.  Keep the work in progress under frequent review and keep the client/customer appraised of the level of work in progress on a weekly/monthly basis (if it is not intended to invoice on an interim weekly/monthly basis). 


A Summary Guide to Buying or Selling Assets

This guide has been prepared to provide an inexperienced buyer or seller with a brief overview of the various stages involved in the sale or purchase of a business in the UK through an asset sale.

This is a short summary of the process; a more detailed guide can be found here.

What is an asset sale?

When buying a business, as asset sale means the sale of the goodwill and assets comprising the business, rather than the sale of the shares in the company that owns and operates the business.

Continue reading A Summary Guide to Buying or Selling Assets

A Summary Guide to Buying or Selling a Company

This guide has been prepared to provide an inexperienced buyer or seller with a brief overview of the various stages of buying or selling a UK company.

This is a short summary of the process; a more detailed guide can be found here.

The Beginning

Initially, the parties agree between themselves the basic terms of the deal (price, when it is paid, what is being acquired, etc).

Advisers involved:

  • Advice from accountants is usually sought
  • Agents or brokers may also be involved
  • Lawyers are generally not instructed at this stage

Special considerations:

  • The buyer indirectly inherits all the assets and liabilities of the company
  • All employees will remain with the company under their existing terms and conditions. The buyer will need to know what these are and to find out whether there are any potential problems with the employees
  • The buyer needs to consider the premises from which the company trades – will the buyer want to keep the premises, and will they in fact remain available after the deal completes?
    Continue reading A Summary Guide to Buying or Selling a Company

Asset Sale v Share Sale

The sale of a business may be structured in one of two ways. The business may be transferred by a sale of the shares in the company which owns and operates the business (a share sale) or by the sale of the assets which are necessary for the continuance of the business (an asset sale). In an asset sale, the seller sells some or all of its assets to a purchaser. In a share sale, the shareholders of the company sell their shares in the company to a purchaser. Which is preferred will depend on all the circumstances and very often the buyer and seller will have different preferences. Generally, a seller will favour a share sale, whereas a buyer will prefer an asset sale.

Continue reading Asset Sale v Share Sale

A Guide to Buying or Selling Assets

This guide to buying or selling assets has been prepared to provide an inexperienced buyer or seller of a business in the UK with a brief overview of the various stages involved in the process.

What is an Asset Sale?

In the context of buying a business, an asset sale means the sale of a business (usually as a going concern) by the sale of the goodwill and assets used in the business, rather than by a sale of the shares in the company that owns and operates the business.

Continue reading A Guide to Buying or Selling Assets

A Guide to Buying or Selling a Company

This guide to buying or selling has been prepared to provide an inexperienced buyer or seller with a brief overview of the various stages of buying or selling a UK company.

The Beginning

The first stage that the parties to a deal will usually go through simply involves the early negotiation of the most basic terms of the deal.  Sometimes the parties will negotiate direct with each other; or they may go through an agent or broker.  It is unlikely that lawyers will be involved at this stage.

Continue reading A Guide to Buying or Selling a Company

Setting up a Business in the UK: The Legal Considerations

Starting a new business is very time consuming, especially if the UK is new to you, with different rules and regulations. Dixcart Legal Limited (Dixcart Legal) can assist with your legal requirements in a seamless way (as well as providing access to tax, IT, and payroll teams if required) so that you can focus your time on building your business.  

Set out in this brief note are issues to consider when starting up a business, along with some summary information to get you started.


  • Where do I want to sell my products/services?
  • Do I want to form an establishment in the UK or do I want to appoint a third party, such as an agent, initially?
  • What is the cost of establishing a company in the UK? 
  • If I do want to set up a business in the UK, what sort of legal structure do I require?
    • Sole Trader?
    • Partnership?
    • Limited Liability Partnership?
    • Limited Liability Company?
  • Which documents need to be in place?
  • What rules and regulations do I need to comply with?
  • Do I need to register for VAT?
  • What do I need to do before I start trading?
  • What do I need to do once I start trading?
  • Are there any tax reliefs available to me?
  • Do I need a property?   If so:-
    • How long do I want to be there?
    • Do I want to occupy it under a lease, a serviced office or licence arrangement?
    • How am I going to finance it?
    • What liabilities am I facing?
    • Which documents should be in place?
  • Do I need a registered office?
  • What name can I use for my business?
    • Are there any restrictions on the name I choose? 
    • How do I carry out a search to check the name is not already being used by another business?
  • Do I need personnel?   If so:-
    • Do I need Employees? Consultants?
    • Will employees from overseas be working in the UK?
    • How will they be paid?
    • Do I need payroll services? 
    • Do I need to think about immigration rules?
  • What level of insurance should I have in place?
  • How am I going to fund the new venture? 
    • Am I taking a loan from someone?
    • Which documents do I need to put in place? 
    • Am I giving security or personal guarantees for the loan?
    • Am I granting share options?
  • How do I protect my business in general?
    • Do I have a strategy in place for losses due to fire, flood, power shortages, strikes, snow, volcanic ash, road closures etc.?
    • What is the most valuable part of my business and how do I protect it? 
  • Do I need a website? 
    • What are cookies on a website?
    • What is data protection?
    • Who owns the website? 
    • What terms of use and privacy notices do I need?
    • Do I need a software system? 
    • Who owns the system?
  • Are any third parties such as brand consultants/advertising agents assisting me?  If so, what protection do I have and who owns what?

In short, we understand that there are a lot of issues to consider.  We set out below some summary information to get you started, as well as how we can help.

1.  What legal structures are available?

This should be one of the first things you consider.  This decision affects the tax and national insurance contribution requirements, HMRC reporting obligations, the liability attached to the business and the documents you need to have in place.

There are four widely used forms of business structure in the UK.  They are summarised in the table below.

Sole Trader

  • The business is owned and run by one individual. 
  • There is no legal distinction between the owner and the business. 
  • The sole trader takes all of the profits but also all the liabilities of the business.


  • Two or more persons carry on business together.
  • Partners generally have unlimited liability and a partnership is not a separate legal entity. 
  • The Partnership Act 1980 governs how partnerships are run.  However, it is not recommended to leave it up to the Partnership Act.  For example, if you do not have a written partnership agreement and one of you leaves or dies, the law says the partnership will be dissolved.  We would recommend that a partnership agreement is drawn up. This agreement would include details setting out how the partnership would work, how you would each put money into the business and take it out, how important decisions would be made and what would happen in the event that one of you wants to leave, becomes ill or dies. 

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

  • This is a hybrid structure, between a partnership and a limited company.
  • A LLP is a separate legal entity. It is registered at Companies House and is governed by the Companies Act.
  • Members' liability is limited.
  • A LLP does not have shareholders or directors and is taxed like a partnership in that the profits are divided among the partners (members), who pay tax on their own share at a rate appropriate to their circumstances.

Limited Company
(there can of course be public limited companies whose shares are usually publically traded. However this note focuses on  private limited companies)

  • A limited company is a separate legal entity, which can be limited by shares or by guarantee. 
  • The members' (otherwise known as shareholders’) liability is limited.  In the case of shares it is limited to the amount paid (and unpaid) on the shares they hold, or, in the case of guarantee, to the amount they have agreed to contribute to the company’s assets if it is wound up.
  • A company limited by shares is most common. Shares make it easier to pass on ownership of the business and provide different ways of managing your tax affairs and possibly giving incentives to employees.
  • Companies are governed by the Companies Act 2006. Consequently there are a lot of rules to follow (there can be criminal penalties if you get it wrong).

The structure that is right for you will depend on your business. There are advantages and disadvantages to each. Dixcart Legal can assist you in making the right decision.

2.  Regulations when setting up a Business in the UK 

The choice of the legal structure will determine which regulations will apply to your business.  For example, in the case of a limited company, a number of documents and information, such as the articles, the name of the company, the names of the directors and the names of the shareholders need to be registered at Companies House.  In addition various statutory filings must be complied with and the company must create and maintain statutory books.

3.  Personnel

Do you wish to engage a consultant, an employee (the two most common engagements) or a person in some other capacity? 

An employee is an individual who works under a contract of employment, which, in turn, means that the individual agrees to serve the employer. A consultant is a self-employed individual working under a contract, who agrees to provide certain services to the employer.  The question of whether someone is an employee or a consultant is a mixed question of fact and law. 

The key issues to consider when hiring are: cost, equal opportunities/discrimination and immigration. 

The principal costs for an employer when hiring employees (other than the usual costs involved in training and setting up a new employee in the business) are the base salary, pension contributions due to auto enrolment (provided that the staging date has been reached) and employer national insurance contributions. You may also choose to provide other benefits in order to attract the appropriate talent to your business.

When recruiting you should also consider potential employment law claims to which the employee may become entitled during recruitment and during and after employment. For example, discrimination rules affect how you word a reference and the questions you can ask during recruitment.  

Employers must also observe immigration and visa requirements. The documents that need to be obtained will depend on the individual’s circumstances.  However in each case an employer must always check original documents before employing individuals to verify that they can work in the UK. 

If you are engaging an employee you must provide a statement of terms of employment within the first two months of employment.  The statement of terms of employment must contain specific information.  

The above issues are just a few of the considerations to take into account and are by no means exhaustive.

How we can help you

Dixcart Legal Limited provides legal solutions and assistance to the business community in the UK and worldwide.  We can:-

  • advise on ways to protect your business and ideas, including drafting:-
    • bonus arrangements;
    • restrictive covenants;
    • confidentiality agreements;
  • draft consultancy agreements and agency agreements;
  • draft director service agreements, contracts of employment and appropriate policies and procedures for employment;
  • draft terms and conditions to be used for your clients and suppliers;
  • form and incorporate your company, advise on the structure, prepare/amend the articles of association, draft a shareholders agreement and  advise on the legal mechanics of running a company day to day, draft and advise on a partnership or LLP agreement, form and incorporate a LLP and also provide company secretarial services;
  • assist with the purchase or sale of property and associated matters, including  advising on:
    • change of use of a property;
    • contracts;
    • dilapidations claims;
    • landlord and tenant issues;
    • leases;
    • lease renewals; 
    • licences;
    • mortgage documentation;
    • rent reviews;
    • terminations, sub-leases etc.

Dixcart Legal can also offer access to other services, including:

  • management and control of companies in the UK;
  • payroll services;
  • tax;
  • assistance with detailed pension arrangements;
  • immigration issues.

About us

Morgan Russell LLP Transferred to Dixcart Legal Limited on 1st May 2014

As from 1st May 2014, the business of Morgan Russell LLP (“Morgan Russell”) transferred  to Dixcart Legal Limited (“Dixcart Legal”).

The partners at Morgan Russell worked together with international business advisors, Dixcart International Limited, to establish Dixcart Legal which is an Alternative Business Structure (“ABS”) regulated by the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the successor practice to Morgan Russell.  Dixcart Legal is a subsidiary of Dixcart International Limited. 

The ABS structure enables lawyers and non-lawyers to work together for the first time, allowing flexibility in terms of organisation and management.

The professional services available from Hillbrow House go beyond those provided by our  fully regulated solicitors at Dixcart Legal and include the services available through Dixcart International.  This can be of particular advantage to businesses entering the Western European market and/or operating in the UK for the first time.

All of the Morgan Russell lawyers and staff have joined Dixcart Legal and the professionals providing legal services, remain as prior to 1st May.  The difference is that we have more resources for you to utilise; but only if you wish to do so.

We remain at our previous address at Hillbrow House in Esher, opposite Sandown Race Course and have the same phone number: 01372 461411.

Our Dixcart Legal website demonstrates the depth of commercial services (previously provided by Morgan Russell) that will continue to be available from Dixcart Legal.

Key Contact: Mel Smith

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Call us

Alternatively, to speak with us directly call us on +44 (0)1372 461411. Lines are open from Monday to Friday 9am to 6pm (excluding UK bank holidays).

© 2016 Dixcart Legal. All rights reserved.

Dixcart Legal is the trading name of Dixcart Legal Limited. Registered in England and Wales with Company Number: 08415391. Registered Office: Hillbrow House, Hillbrow Road, Esher, Surrey, KT10 9NW. VAT Registration Number: GB 720 6860 44. Dixcart Legal Limited is authorised and regulated by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (No. 612167).
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